Petroleum, known as “crude oil, rock oil, oil from the earth” is a liquid fuel that is present in various locations throughout the world.
Oil was formed from the remains of biodegraded organic material such as remains of animals and plants. They lived millions of years ago in a marine (underwater) before the dinosaurs. Over the years, the remains were covered by layers of mud (very fine dirt known as silt). As the years passed the heat and pressure from the layers compressed the remains and turn them into what we today call crude oil.
Petroleum takes three main forms: paraffin, asphaltic, and mixed-base (aromatics and naphthenes). These forms are based upon the chemical makeup of the hydrocarbon-based oil. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of hydrocarbon vary as follow:
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Crude oil smells and and looks like collored in dark yellow liquid. Usually it found in underground areas called reservoirs. Years ago the main applications of the crude oil were waterproofing and light emission. In the 1800s was discovered the “kerosine”. It’s a liquid fuel that can be be isolated from crude oil. Kerosene was used for lighting purposes.
getting the oil
Measurements are taken, and, if the site seems promising, drilling begins. Above the hole, a structure called a ‘derrick’ is built to house the tools and pipes going into the well. When finished, the drilled well will bring a steady flow of oil to the surface.
After crude oil is removed from the ground, usually it is sent to a refinery by pipeline, ship or barge. Ddifferent parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products at the refinery. Crude oil is measured in barrels (abbreviated “bbls”). A gallon barrel of crude oil provides alittle bit more than 44 gallons of petroleum products.
When it refined one barrel of crude oil produces about 19.9 gallons of finished motor gasoline, as well as other petroleum products.
Most of the petroleum products are used for energy production. Other products, made from petroleum and you know are: ink, crayons, bubble gum, dishwashing liquids, deodorant, eyeglasses, records, tires, ammonia, and heart valves.
Some of the most common used fuels are distillations of petroleum. Distillation is a method of separating mixtures. These fuels you know as:
- Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
- Ethane and other short-chain alkanes
- Gasoline (Petrol)
- Diesel fuel (petrodiesel)
- Jet fuel
- Fuel oils
Alkenes (olefins) that is possible to be manufactured into plastic or other compounds
- Lubricants as light machine oils, motor oils, and greases
- Wax, used for example in the packaging of frozen foods
- Sulfur or Sulfuric acid
- Bulk tar.
- Petroleum coke
- Paraffin wax
- Aromatic petrochemicals
Oil – environmental effects
When petroleum products are burned as fuel, they give off carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is linked with global warming.
The use of petroleum products also gives off pollutants – carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and unburned hydrocarbons – that help form air pollution.
Since a lot of air pollution comes from cars and trucks, many environmental laws have been aimed at changing the make-up of gasoline and diesel fuel so that they produce fewer emissions.